fun <T> callbackFlow(block: suspend ProducerScope<T>.() -> Unit): Flow<T>

Creates an instance of a coldFlow with elements that are sent to a SendChannel provided to the builder's block of code via ProducerScope. It allows elements to be produced by code that is running in a different context or concurrently.

The resulting flow is cold, which means that block is called every time a terminal operator is applied to the resulting flow.

This builder ensures thread-safety and context preservation, thus the provided ProducerScope can be used from any context, e.g. from a callback-based API. The resulting flow completes as soon as the code in the block completes. awaitClose should be used to keep the flow running, otherwise the channel will be closed immediately when block completes. awaitClose argument is called either when a flow consumer cancels the flow collection or when a callback-based API invokes SendChannel.close manually and is typically used to cleanup the resources after the completion, e.g. unregister a callback. Using awaitClose is mandatory in order to prevent memory leaks when the flow collection is cancelled, otherwise the callback may keep running even when the flow collector is already completed. To avoid such leaks, this method throws IllegalStateException if block returns, but the channel is not closed yet.

A channel with the default buffer size is used. Use the buffer operator on the resulting flow to specify a user-defined value and to control what happens when data is produced faster than consumed, i.e. to control the back-pressure behavior.

Adjacent applications of callbackFlow, flowOn, buffer, and produceIn are always fused so that only one properly configured channel is used for execution.

Example of usage that converts a multi-shot callback API to a flow. For single-shot callbacks use suspendCancellableCoroutine.

fun flowFrom(api: CallbackBasedApi): Flow<T> = callbackFlow {
val callback = object : Callback { // Implementation of some callback interface
override fun onNextValue(value: T) {
// To avoid blocking you can configure channel capacity using
// either buffer(Channel.CONFLATED) or buffer(Channel.UNLIMITED) to avoid overfill
.onFailure { throwable ->
// Downstream has been cancelled or failed, can log here
override fun onApiError(cause: Throwable) {
cancel(CancellationException("API Error", cause))
override fun onCompleted() = channel.close()
* Suspends until either 'onCompleted'/'onApiError' from the callback is invoked
* or flow collector is cancelled (e.g. by 'take(1)' or because a collector's coroutine was cancelled).
* In both cases, callback will be properly unregistered.
awaitClose { api.unregister(callback) }

The callback register/unregister methods provided by an external API must be thread-safe, because awaitClose block can be called at any time due to asynchronous nature of cancellation, even concurrently with the call of the callback.


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