Kotlin Help

Hierarchical project structure

With Kotlin 1.6.20, every new multiplatform project comes with a hierarchical project structure. This means that source sets form a hierarchy for sharing the common code among several targets. It opens up a variety of opportunities, including using platform-dependent libraries in common source sets and the ability to share code when creating multiplatform libraries.

To get a default hierarchical project structure in your projects, update to the latest release. If you need to keep using an earlier version than 1.6.20, you can still enable this feature manually. For this, add the following to your gradle.properties:

kotlin.mpp.enableGranularSourceSetsMetadata=true kotlin.native.enableDependencyPropagation=false

For multiplatform project authors

With the new hierarchical project structure support, you can share code among some, but not all, targets in a multiplatform project.

You can also use platform-dependent libraries, such as UIKit and POSIX, in source sets shared among several native targets. One popular case is having access to iOS-specific dependencies like Foundation when sharing code across all iOS targets. The new structure helps you share more native code without being limited by platform-specific dependencies.

By using the hierarchical structure along with platform-dependent libraries in shared source sets, you can eliminate the need to use workarounds to get IDE support for sharing source sets among several native targets, for example iosArm64 and iosX64:

// workaround 1: select iOS target platform depending on the Xcode environment variables kotlin { val iOSTarget: (String, KotlinNativeTarget.() -> Unit) -> KotlinNativeTarget = if (System.getenv("SDK_NAME")?.startsWith("iphoneos") == true) ::iosArm64 else ::iosX64 iOSTarget("ios") }
# workaround 2: make symbolic links to use one source set for two targets ln -s iosMain iosArm64Main && ln -s iosMain iosX64Main

Instead of doing this, you can create a hierarchical structure with target shortcuts available for typical multi-target scenarios, or you can manually declare and connect the source sets. For example, you can create two iOS targets and a shared source set with the ios() shortcut:

kotlin { ios() // iOS device and simulator targets; iosMain and iosTest source sets }

The Kotlin toolchain will provide the correct default dependencies and locate the API surface area available in the shared code. This prevents cases like the use of a macOS-specific function in code shared for Windows.

For library authors

A hierarchical project structure allows for reusing code in similar targets, as well as publishing and consuming libraries with granular APIs targeting similar platforms.

The Kotlin toolchain will automatically figure out the API available in the consumer source set while checking for unsafe usages, like using an API meant for the JVM in JS code.

  • Libraries published with the new hierarchical project structure are only compatible with projects that already have a hierarchical project structure. To enable compatibility with non-hierarchical projects, add the following to the gradle.properties file in your library project:

  • Libraries published without the hierarchical project structure can't be used in a shared native source set. For example, users with ios() shortcuts in their build.gradle.(kts) files won't be able to use your library in their iOS-shared code.

See Compatibility for more details.


Compatibility between multiplatform projects and libraries is determined as follows:

Library with hierarchical project structure

Project with hierarchical project structure






Need to enable with enableCompatibilityMetadataVariant in the library project



Library can't be used in a shared native source set



How to opt-out

To disable hierarchical structure support, set the following option to false in your gradle.properties:


As for the kotlin.mpp.enableCompatibilityMetadataVariant option that enables compatibility of libraries published with the hierarchical project structure and non-hierarchical projects – it's disabled by default. No additional steps are required.

Last modified: 07 February 2023